Published 26 June 2024

Development of an effective predictive screening tool for prostate cancer using the ClarityDX machine learning platform

M. Eric Hyndman, Robert J. Paproski, Adam Kinnaird, Adrian Fairey, Leonard Marks, Christian P. Pavlovich, Sean A. Fletcher, Roman Zachoval, Vanda Adamcova, Jiri Stejskal, Armen Aprikian, Christopher J. D. Wallis, Desmond Pink, Catalina Vasquez, Perrin H. Beatty & John D. Lewis

Abstract
The current prostate cancer (PCa) screen test, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), has a high sensitivity for PCa but low specificity for high-risk, clinically significant PCa (csPCa), resulting in overdiagnosis and overtreatment of non-csPCa. Early identification of csPCa while avoiding unnecessary biopsies in men with non-csPCa is challenging. We built an optimized machine learning platform (ClarityDX) and showed its utility in generating models predicting csPCa. Integrating the ClarityDX platform with blood-based biomarkers for clinically significant PCa and clinical biomarker data from a 3448-patient cohort, we developed a test to stratify patients’ risk of csPCa; called ClarityDX Prostate. When predicting high risk cancer in the validation cohort, ClarityDX Prostate showed 95% sensitivity, 35% specificity, 54% positive predictive value, and 91% negative predictive value, at a ≥ 25% threshold. Using ClarityDX Prostate at this threshold could avoid up to 35% of unnecessary prostate biopsies. ClarityDX Prostate showed higher accuracy for predicting the risk of csPCa than PSA alone and the tested model-based risk calculators. Using this test as a reflex test in men with elevated PSA levels may help patients and their healthcare providers decide if a prostate biopsy is necessary.